Establishing Python Coding Standards For Your Engineering Teams: A Comprehensive Guide

Establishing Python Coding Standards For Your Engineering Teams A Comprehensive Guide

Last updated on December 31st, 2023

Inroduction

Code quality is critical for sustainable software delivery. By defining and enforcing consistent Python styling and development practices across teams via coding standards, you foster maintainability.

This comprehensive guide covers all aspects of introducing Python coding standards including:

  • Benefits of consistent coding standards
  • Python specific styling guidelines
  • Tooling choices for standards enforcement
  • Integrating linters into CI pipelines
  • Formulating project-specific guidelines
  • Fostering developer buy-in
  • Balancing strictness vs. flexibility
  • Automating parts of enforcement
  • Adapting standards over time
  • Debugging standards violations

Let’s get started on the path towards higher quality and uniformity!

Benefits of Python Coding Standards

Here are the major advantages of introducing unified Python code expectations and practices:

  1. Readability – Consistent styling means easier comprehension of unfamiliar code across the organization.
  2. Maintainability – Standards ensure best practices permeate the codebase despite churn and developer changes.
  3. Onboarding – New hires get up to speed faster jumping into similarly structured code.
  4. Collaboration – Coding discussions revolve around logic rather than superficial style critiques.
  5. Tooling – Automated standards testing enables cleaner CI pipelines and DevOps.

Setting the right styling, tooling and review standards unlocks massive dividends down the road in engineering velocity and code hygiene.

Python Styling Guide Choices


For Python, you have a choice between PEP8 and Google’s Python Style Guide when formulating coding style rules. The key differentiators are:

  1. Line length – PEP8 recommends 79 characters while Google uses 80.
  2. Indentation – PEP8 suggests 4 spaces, Google advocates for 2 spaces.
  3. Import grouping – PEP8 groups stdlib vs 3rd party imports while Google relies on isort tool.
  4. Docstrings – PEP8 likes line breaks while Google condones single line docstrings.

We suggest you pick PEP8 given its widespread use and validation via tools like pycodestyle. For specifics, Google’s guide does offer a good reference point as well on naming, patterns, language idioms etc not explicitly covered by PEP8 conventions.

Linting and Validation Tooling

There are some great open source tools available to actually test for standards, especially around styling:

Pylint – Extensive stylistic and code quality checks catching bugs early. But can be annoying for some developers.

pycodestyle – Focuses solely on PEP8 style validation rather than code logic. Simple and universal.

pyflakes – More lightweight by targeting only logical errors ignoring stylistic preferences.

flake8 – Combines pyflakes + pycodestyle into a single linter. Thus gets you decent coverage.

For most teams, flake8 hits the right balance between breadth and unobtrusiveness. As standards evolve, adding something like pylint later is easy.

Integrating Linting into CI/CD Pipelines

To enforce standards automatically, integrate these Python linting tools into CI builds and pre-commit hooks:

# Add linter check + config file
pip install flake8
echo "[flake8]" > .flake8  

# Customize configs like max line length
flake8 --max-line-length=100

# Exit CI build on linter issues
flake8 . --count --select=E9,F63,F7,F82 --show-source --statistics  || exit 1

This will break merges/deploys on new styling violations. Make linting part of code reviews as well for rapid developer feedback.

Project Specific Python Guidelines

While defining organization-wide Python standards, leave room for specialization based on project intricacies too via:

  • Commenting expectations like APIs or complex logic
  • Target environment conventions if coding for serverless, mobile etc
  • Custom exceptions vs. standard exceptions
  • Internal vs external module interfaces
  • Legacy browser support needs
  • Debug logging guidelines
  • Resource cleanup obligations
  • Performance related prototyping allowance

Have teams co-author additional specs files checked into repositories clarifying scope specific rules that augment higher level standards.

Obtaining Developer Buy-in

Garnering voluntary acceptance of standards from engineering teams for consistency requires smart change management:

  1. Collaboratively develop guidelines instead of top-down mandates
  2. Prioritize efficiency and meaningfulness of rules over dogmatism
  3. Phase enforcement allowing interim relaxations
  4. Incentivize via performance management
  5. Develop standardized IDE editor config files promoting adherence
  6. Offer mentoring and code reviews rather than policing

With consultative and incentive driven approaches, developer resistance can be transformed into commitment.

Balance: Strict vs. Flexible Guardrails

Set Python coding standards keeping in mind that excess rigidity hampers productivity:

  1. Limit stylistic precision till it adds readability value
  2. Guard against over-engineering internal tools
  3. Prefer guiding principles open to interpretation
  4. Provide STDlib exceptions to rules helping teams preview merits
  5. Seek regular feedback on pain points
  6. Fix flaky tooling traps adding friction
  7. Right size reviews to pull request complexity

Keeping standards adaptable ensures high organizational alignment without dysfunctional governance.

Automation Opportunities

Given manual standards enforcement has limits, tap automation through:

  1. Git hooks preventing commits on violations
  2. CI PR feedback commenting on issues
  3. Linter integration into IDEs like PyCharm
  4. Better editorconfig distribution for uniformity
  5. Bot helpers commenting on diffs with style tips
  6. Automatically formatting code against rules

When structured right, tools can act as frictionless mentors at developers’ fingertips instilling best practices habitually.

Evolving Standards

Building durable and practical Python standards requires continuous iterations:

  1. Run short lived experiments to test ideas at scale
  2. Rotate peer reviewers soliciting creative improvements
  3. Periodically refresh constraints balancing agility needs
  4. Liberally approve exceptions that justify waivers
  5. Crowdsource inspiration from open source projects
  6. Celebrate version graduation milestones collectively

Keeping coding standard setting based on evidence rather than just convention future proofs adherence.

Debugging Standards Violations

Here are some effective ways to diagnose and resolve recurring Python style and quality violations:

  1. Correct low difficulty warnings first to enable focus
  2. Use historical blame info to pinpoint new rule gaps
  3. Analyze disable statements for rational tweaking
  4. Map exceptions to explainable scenarios
  5. Sift data for clustering signals suggesting systemic remedies
  6. Trace propagated old code requiring incremental upgrades
  7. Interview repeat offenders to understand friction

Persisting coding standard errors often reveal opportunities to refine standards, tools or team skills.

Conclusion

Implementing Python coding best practices across engineering teams is crucial for sustainably managing enterprise-scale software assets. A pragmatic coding standards blueprint backed by configurability sets the stage for high-quality development. Automated linting combined with collaborative governance keeps standards helpful rather than dogmatic; evolving them over time. The outcome is world-class consistency, efficiency and maintainability!

FAQs

Here are some common questions about Python coding standards:

  1. Which parts of Python code should standards focus on regulating?

Aim for styling, quality, security and reliability related dimensions like indentation, naming, imports, exceptions, logging etc. Avoid overly constraining actual logic.

  1. When is disabling linter rules justifiable?

Disable only when necessary to meet valid technical needs, legacy system realities etc. Establish processes fortransparently approving one-off exceptions to keep deviations minimal.

  1. Should Python standards differ across application vs. library code?

Start with a unified base set of rules. Then publish specialized addendums for application framework patterns or distribution package nuances where appropriate.

  1. How often should Python standards be revised?

Plan bi-annual minor releases for incremental enhancements, bug fixes etc. Conduct more complete reviews every 2-3 years to keep pace with language capabilities, project learnings etc.

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